Agency refers to an individual’s ability to act independently, make their own choices, and influence their surroundings. It is a dynamic concept, evolving with personal growth, knowledge, and experiences.

Individual Autonomy

Agency begins with the idea that an individual has the freedom to make their own choices. This is the bedrock principle of agency and is often referred to as “autonomy”. It’s the idea that a person can act based on their personal desires, beliefs, and values, not merely as a result of external influences or pressures.

Power of Choice

The power to make choices, also known as decision-making capacity, is a critical aspect of agency. This involves not only the ability to select among various options but also the understanding that one’s choices have consequences, both for oneself and others.


Agency involves the capacity to form intentions and to act upon them. This implies a certain level of consciousness and thoughtfulness about one’s actions. An agent doesn’t just react to their environment, they actively seek to shape it according to their intentions.


Agency is not just about potential or theoretical ability to act; it requires actual action. An agent uses their ability to think, choose, and have intentions to take actions that have real effects in the world.


With agency comes responsibility. Because an agent has the power to make choices and take actions, they are also held accountable for the consequences of those actions. This can include ethical, legal, and social responsibility.

Influence and Control

Agency implies some level of influence or control over one’s environment. This doesn’t mean total control, as there are always external factors at play, but it does mean that an agent has the ability to shape and change their circumstances to some degree.

Ability to Navigate Constraints

Agency doesn’t mean that one is free of all constraints or limitations. Instead, it means having the ability to navigate those constraints, to make choices and take actions within the bounds of what is possible in a given situation.

Sociocultural Factors

Agency doesn’t exist in a vacuum. It’s shaped and influenced by sociocultural factors, including social norms, cultural values, and societal structures. Understanding agency requires an understanding of these broader sociocultural contexts.

Agency and Interdependency

While agency focuses on individual action, it doesn’t negate the fact that we are all interdependent. Our actions affect others and their actions affect us. Recognizing this interdependency is a key part of understanding agency.

Growth and Development

Agency is not static; it can change and grow over time. As individuals gain more knowledge, experience, and skills, their capacity for agency can increase. This aspect of agency highlights the potential for personal growth and development.