Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s antifragility describes systems that gain from stress, differentiating from mere resilience. This principle, applicable from biological to economic systems, underscores growth and adaptation amidst volatility and unpredictability.
Expected value, a cornerstone of statistics and probability, indicates the average outcome of repeated events. Despite its ubiquity in fields such as economics and decision-making, it doesn’t predict individual outcomes and can be skewed by outliers. Its broad applications necessitate considering ethical implications due to potential unequal impacts.
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measures the level of desired information (signal) against irrelevant or distracting information (noise). A high SNR means clearer content, while a low SNR implies more distraction. This concept applies in areas like data communication and everyday conversation.