MVP (Minimum Viable Product)

Originating from the Lean Startup methodology, the Minimum Viable Product (MVP) is a product version with only essential features, developed to validate a specific business hypothesis quickly. This approach prioritizes user feedback, enabling prompt refinements to ensure the product meets market demands while optimizing resource use.


  • The ‘Minimum Viable Product’ concept stems from the Lean Startup methodology, introduced by Eric Ries.
  • Its foundation is in lean manufacturing, which prioritizes reducing waste in processes.

Key Concepts

  • Validation: At its core, MVP seeks to validate a specific business hypothesis.
  • Iterative Development: MVP involves a continuous cycle of building, testing, gathering feedback from its target audience, and making refinements based on this feedback.
  • Resource Efficiency: MVP focuses on delivering only the essential features necessary to validate the main hypothesis, conserving both time and financial resources.
  • Feedback Loop: MVP heavily relies on feedback, specifically from early adopters or its target audience, to drive product iterations.


  • Core Features: These are the indispensable functionalities that allow the MVP to serve its purpose.
  • Usability: Despite its minimalistic nature, an MVP is designed to be user-friendly.
  • Value Proposition: The MVP’s primary offering that addresses specific needs or resolves challenges for its target audience.


  • Zappos: Instead of building a full e-commerce platform initially, the founder posted photos of shoes from local stores and bought them from the stores only after receiving orders.
  • Airbnb: In its earliest form, it simply facilitated users renting out an air mattress in their living spaces.


  • Risk Mitigation: With MVP, there’s an opportunity for early and regular validation, reducing chances of extensive resource wastage.
  • Cost Efficiency: By zeroing in on crucial features, MVP minimizes both capital outlay and development time.
  • Speed to Market: MVP provides a pathway for businesses to launch products rapidly.
  • Learning & Adaptation: MVP is an instrument for businesses to mold their products in alignment with tangible user feedback, ensuring alignment with market demand.
  • Stakeholder Communication: MVP serves as a tangible representation for stakeholders, succinctly conveying a project’s vision and direction.

Potential Pitfalls

  • Over or Under Scoping: Skewing too much in either direction can lead to excessive expenditure on non-essential features or omitting critical functionalities. For instance, an MVP for a messaging app that lacks real-time messaging misses its core purpose.
  • Misinterpreting Feedback: While feedback is pivotal, it varies in quality and relevance. An MVP for a professional tool might receive feedback for gaming features, which may not align with its primary audience’s needs.